International ATMs in Syria
I've never had such a difficult time finding an internationally-capable ATM (in a large city) as I have here in Aleppo. I was fortunate to have changed some Turkish lira into Syrian pounds before stepping across the border.
The Middle East guidebook my friend sent over to me states that "there were only three ATMs in town at the time of research"—one of which was at the airport. Things have certainly changed in the past three or more years since that chapter was last updated, but most banks are local, as are their cash machines.
If you're looking for an ATM that accepts both Visa (Plus) and MasterCard (Maestro, Cirrus), then try asking a taxi driver to shuttle you to a Banque Bemo Saudi Fransi.